Well log plot

Extracting data from DLIS files

Update, April 2020: I just published a tutorial on getting started with well log data. It is based on Equinor’s Volve Data Village dataset and their dlisio library, both of which are free and open. You can read more about the tutorial here, or go straight to the tutorial article and its companion Jupyter Notebook.

In my current research project, I am working with two well log datasets from Equinor. The first is a large dataset that they released to CIUS, my research group. The second is a smaller freely available dataset called Volve Data Village. The files in those datasets contain measurements from many of Equinor’s subsea wells on the Norwegian continental shelf. These data files are primarily in the DLIS format, formally known as API RP66.

Even though DLIS is the most common format for well log data today, only a very limited number of programs can read it. In addition, most of these programs are geared towards displaying the data so that log interpreters can analyse it visually. What I need, on the other hand, is full access to the data so that I can run my own computational analyses.

When I started my post-doc around a year ago, I had to figure out how to get the data out of DLIS files so that I could work with it. Since then, I have learned quite a bit about how to read these files. In this post, I want to share some of what I have learned with you.

What are DLIS files?

In 1991, the American Petroleum Institute introduced the Digital Log Interchange Standard (DLIS) format as their Recommended Practice 66 (API RP66). This original version of the standard has now become the standard format for well log data. (The second version of the DLIS standard from 1996 never really caught on.)

Sets, frames, and channels

Well log plot
Five DLIS channels from a log file in the well Volve 15/9-F-11 B. The two channels in the left column have one dimension (depth), whereas those in the other three columns have two dimensions (depth and azimuthal angle).

We can divide the content of DLIS files into two main components, namely sets and frames.

A DLIS set is basically a table of data that describes the logging situation. For example, one set might specify the tools used in the logging run. Another set might specify which frames are available in the file. Other sets may specify the parameters used while logging and processing the data.

However, sets do not contain the data measured throughout the well. Instead, DLIS channels hold this data as a function of depth. DLIS frames consist of DLIS channels with the same resolution (and the same depth axis, which itself is a channel in the frame). As shown to the right, DLIS channels may be one-dimensional (i.e. hold one value per depth), two-dimensional (e.g. values over multiple angles or multiple samples of a time signal per depth), or even higher-dimensional. Common depth resolutions for DLIS frames are 6 in, 3 in, 2 in, 1.5 in, and 1 in.

By the way, a .dlis file on your disk actually contains one or more “logical” DLIS files. Each of these has its own sets and channels. Thankfully, having more than one logical files in a disk file is the exception rather than the rule.

Problems with DLIS

There is no getting around the fact that DLIS is an old and awkward format from a very different time. As an example of how archaic it can be, the DLIS standard dedicates significant space and complexity to structures that allow splitting files across multiple magnetic tapes. It defines a frankly unneccessary amount of non-standard data types. Reading it gives the impression that efforts to save disk space have strongly increased its complexity. In fact, reading the standard at all is not an easy task as it fairly impenetrable.

Moreover, while DLIS is a standardised format, I have heard from several people who have looked into its guts that it is not always specified unambiguously. Consequently, different companies and softwares use their own dialects of DLIS to some degree. Therefore, their files may not be entirely compatible with one another. This makes the task of reading DLIS files harder, as you have to compensate for these kind of differences.

For these reasons and more, writing your own DLIS reader is an extremely challenging task. It’s not something that a lone researcher should take on on their own unless they are willing to dedicate a lot of time to it. To make their DLIS reader robust, they would also need to have example files from a wide range of DLIS file producers available.

Alternative well log formats

At the time that DLIS was originally published, other formats were already common. The Log Information Standard (LIS), published by Schlumberger in 1979, was the predecessor to DLIS. However, this format is supposedly even more difficult to deal with than DLIS, and thankfully you probably don’t have to unless you are trying to read really old well log files.

Another format is the Log ASCII Standard (LAS), published by the Canadian Well Logging Society around 1990. Unlike the binary DLIS and LIS formats, LAS files are pure text files. A LAS file typically starts with a block of well information and another block of log parameters. Then, it finishes with the channel data in an easily parsed CSV-like format.

It is both an advantage and a disadvantage that LAS files are text-based. The advantage is that humans can easily read LAS files, and writing a parser for them is relatively simple. Text-based formats have some disadvantages compared to binary formats, however. Representing numbers by text strings takes a lot more disk space, can reduce the precision of the data, and makes files slower to read.

An example of a newer well log format is the JSON Well Log Format that Petroware published in 2019. It stores log data in the text-based JSON format, for which most widely-used programming languages have libraries. Despite such efforts, however, we will still have to deal with DLIS files for the time being.

My criteria

My goal for reading DLIS files was to get the data into another format that I could read quickly from Python for the purposes of processing and/or machine learning. I had a few criteria that a good approach should meet:

  • Completeness: I wanted to be able to read all the information available in a DLIS file; I would not be able to know what data would be useful before examining it further.
  • Precision: I did not want to lose information by reducing the precision of floating-point numbers, as you typically do while converting numbers from binary to text.
  • Speed: As data reading speed is essential for machine learning, I wanted to be able to read any desired information into Python very quickly.
  • Automation: There are many non-scriptable GUI programs that can export data. However, this is extremely time-consuming when you are trying to export from hundreds of files. I therefore wanted an approach that I could automate, e.g. through scripting.
  • Price: Ideally, I wanted to use free software or libraries, as I have a quite limited research budget.

DLIS tools and approaches

I have gathered some information about possible tools and approaches for reading DLIS files, and I’ll present the most interesting ones to you. I’ll skip most of the commercial tools, as I have not been able to test most of them, and they obviously fail the price criterion. Additionally, people have told me that many of them fail the automation and precision criteria as well. You don’t want to have to pay money for a program where you still have to click through a GUI for every DLIS file you want to export data from.

Log Data Toolbox

This is a free toolbox from Schlumberger, who published its latest version, 2.3, in 2009. The toolbox contains a variety programs to work with well log data. While this is Windows-only software, I can also run it fine on macOS using Wine. The most interesting programs are:

DLIS InfoView

DLIS InfoView
DLIS InfoView in action

While this program cannot actually export channel data from DLIS files, it is still very useful. It can generate great overviews of the contents of the files. These include all of the log parameters stored in a file, and a list of frames and the channels that the file contains. These channels are organised by the tools that they belong to. You can even export the overview as HTML.

Moreover, this program has a command-line interface, which means that you can script it. For example, you can script the program to export a nice HTML summary of every DLIS file that you have.

DLIS to ASCII

DLIS to ASCII
DLIS to ASCII in action

This program lets you convert DLIS files to a number of different text-based formats. These include a variety of LAS standards, in addition to several CSV-like formats. In the program, you can select which channels and parameters you want to export. If you want to export all channels and parameters using the GUI, you can do that fairly easily. Just mark every row and use a menu option to check their boxes for export.

If you want to convert a large library of DLIS files, you don’t have to open every single one and click around. The program also has a command-line interface so that you can script it. Even so, you would have to specify for each file which channels and parameters you want to export. This requires that you know the channels and parameters available in each file ahead of time. While this information is available in the HTML files that DLIS InfoView can provide, parsing these files and scripting everything is a fairly complex task.

Additionally, the available export formats do not support different channels having multiple depth resolutions. It is possible to specify any depth resolution for export, and the program will downsample higher-resolution channels and interpolate lower-resolution channels. However, this will lose information from the higher-resolution channels, and unnecessarily bloat the file with redundant information from lower-resolution channels. Alternatively, you could export one file for each depth resolution, but this adds to the complexity.

Summary

Technically, you could use the Log Data Toolbox to build a data export approach that fulfills the criteria above. Even precision can be fulfilled, as DLIS to ASCII lets you specify how many decimals you want in your output. However, using these tools to export data would be a complex and annoying scripting job. You would also end up with bloated text files that you would have to convert to another format to be able to read the data quickly.

dlispy

Teradata recently published this Python library under the free BSD-3-clause licence. Its main functionality is to read DLIS files and dump their contents to text files. dlispy dumps the DLIS sets as a JSON file, and each DLIS as a CSV file. From what I can tell, the dump is fairly complete.

Reading the CSV files is fairly straightforward. Each line represents one depth, and contains the values of all the frame’s channels for that depth. However, it gets a bit trickier for multidimensional channels. Instead of just having one value per line, they have a string containing a list of values. Additionally, channels with more than two dimensions (which is admittedly rare) are flattened to two. You have to look them up in the DLIS sets to be able to unflatten them. And understanding the dumped DLIS sets requires some work.

Even though its documentation is not good and using it is not entirely straightforward, you can certainly use dlispy to extract data from DLIS files. It fulfills my criteria: It is free, can be automated, and seems to extract all the data. While it does export the data to text files, the decimal precision seems to be high, and you can subsequently convert these files to other formats that are quicker to read. I have not tried it extensively, however, and I do not know if it is able to read a wide variety of DLIS files.

I should also mention that its developers seem to have abandoned dlispy. At least at this time of writing, they only made two commits to github in November 2018, and there has been no activity since.

dlisio

This is another Python library that Equinor recently published under the free LGPL license. While the library is currently under heavy development and only has API documentation, it is already usable. You can use it directly in Python to explore the contents of DLIS files. While reading data directly from the DLIS files is somewhat slow due to the design of the DLIS standard, you can fairly easily export the data to another, faster format. (One idea is exporting to HDF5 using the h5py Python library.)

Some things are still missing, though. For example, it would be very useful to have a link from a channel or frame to its corresponding depth axis. It is still possible to find, but more of a hassle than necessary. [Update: This feature was added to dlisio in October 2019.] And while dlisio can give you the units of DLIS channels, it does not yet provide the units of measurement parameters. Thus, you cannot tell if a parameter value is in seconds, milliseconds, microseconds, or something else.

Even though it may still lack some features, dlisio is a good bet if you want to extract data from DLIS files. Again, it is free, easily automated, and looks like it can extract all the data from a DLIS file. Unlike dlispy, dlisio lets you access the data directly without having to export text files. Another advantage of dlisio is that its developers are currently very active, and they are always improving the library.

Log I/O

This is a commercial library for Java and .NET, published by Petroware. They first made it public in 2013, and they have been improving it since. Petroware’s parent company Logtek performs QA on most well logs from the Norwegian continental shelf using software based on this library. For that reason, you can expect Log I/O to be able to read pretty much any DLIS file that you can throw at it. Log I/O also has good documentation, both for Java and .NET, and I found it quite easy to use. The only problem I had with it was when reading a few very large files, the largest being over 6 GB. (I had the same problem on macOS and Linux, and it could not be solved simply by increasing the Java heap size.) Still, I found a workaround by using a Log I/O feature to slowly read the files bit by bit.

If you don’t mind using Java or .NET, Log I/O fulfills all of my criteria except one: It is not free, and a licence costs a few thousand EUR or USD. The exact amount will depend on the license type and the features you want. If you are considering using it, though, you may be able to get a time-limited free trial version if you contact Petroware.

So, what to do?

When I needed to extract data from DLIS files, neither dlispy or dlisio had been published. I therefore ended up buying a one-year licence to Log I/O. I used its Java version to read the contents of DLIS files, and used the HDF Object Package for Java to write to a HDF5 format. The latter library is part of the HDFView software, but you can also use it as a separate library. Using some Python helper modules that I wrote, I can then read these HDF5 files easily and efficiently into Python. In other words, an approach based on Log I/O has worked quite well for me.

But what should you do, now that some more options are available? Well, it depends on a few things, namely price and your DLIS files. If you want to go for a free alternative and don’t mind using Python, look into dlisio and/or dlispy and see if you are able to read your DLIS files without problems. If you have money to spend and don’t mind using Java or .NET, Log I/O is a safe and good option.

Regardless of what you choose, you probably also want to export the DLIS contents to a format that you can read efficiently. A simple option could be a structure with folders containing binary files. Each frame is a folder, and its channels are binary files. However, it’s not quite that easy. You also need to store meta-data, such as each channel’s units or numeric data type. For that reason, I think the HDF5 format is a good option. It supports a nice folder-like structure for your data, and DLIS channels of any number of dimensions can be nicely represented as datasets in HDF5. These datasets are essentially n-dimensional arrays. HDF5 also lets you annotate each folder and dataset with metadata if you like. Not only that, but pretty much any programming language has libraries for HDF5.

But regardless of how you end up getting at the sweet, juicy data inside your DLIS files, I wish you success!

All log data and log information shown in this post is taken from Equinor’s Volve Data Village dataset. This dataset is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 licence.

22 thoughts on “Extracting data from DLIS files”

  1. Deni Stefanelli

    Hi Erlend,
    First of all, very interesting your text about DLIS files! My name is Denilson and I am a PhD student in petroleum engineering from the University of Campinas (Unicamp), Brazil. I am currently part of a project sponsored by Equinor, whose theme is the study of reservoirs in the Brazilian pre-salt region (carbonates) and, at the moment, my research lines are NMR data and well seismic tie. I am currently trying to extract NMR data from DLIS to LAS (text) format, so that I can use it in my research, but for the time being I was unsuccessful! I would like to use free softwares preferably, Is dlisio able to convert DLIS NMR data to LAS format?
    Best regards,
    Deni Stefanelli

    1. Hi Deni,

      If you simply want to convert DLIS to LAS so that you can use the LAS files with other tools that take LAS input, I’d say that your best bet is the DLIS to ASCII program that I mentioned in the post. This can convert to a number of text-based formats, including LAS.

      The intended usage of dlisio is not to convert to other formats, but to let you access the DLIS data directly from Python. So if you simply want to have access to the data so that you can analyse and/or process it and you’re comfortable with using Python, I’d say that using dlisio could be a good bet. You wouldn’t need to go through an intermediate format such as LAS then.

      Erlend

  2. Pingback: Getting started with well log data | Erlend M. Viggen

  3. Maurício Redaelli

    That was really helpful! I’ll try some of those options on Halliburton and SLB acquisitions and come back here to tell you the results. I’m focused on sonic log processing – one of those multi-dimensional cases you mentioned, so .las won’t do it.
    I have access raw data from .csv files exported thru commercial softwares in my job. It would be fantastic to skip the ‘commercial’ dependance and build our own software, with a lot of knowledge inputs we don’t get just using commercial softwares. Looks like they don’t want us to see what they put inside their codes.
    And this kind of post and blog is purely about providing value and knowledge, so thank you very much!

    1. I’m very glad to hear that you found the article useful! If you’re fairly comfortable with Python programming, I highly suggest that you look into the dlisio library (https://github.com/equinor/dlisio). Together with the dlisio authors, I just published a conference article on using it to read and process sonic and ultrasonic log data. We also provide the code underlying the article, which you can use as a starting point. You can find both through https://erlend-viggen.no/well-log-data-tutorial/.

      The reason why I’m so comfortable recommending dlisio is that I’ve now worked with it quite a bit, and I have found it very nice and straightforward to use — pretty much as straightforward as it can be considering the awkwardness of the DLIS format. The only thing missing is that it cannot yet give you the units of parameters, but the dlisio authors have confirmed to me that this feature is coming soon.

      1. Maurício Redaelli

        I dived into the code and analysis you provided, and got a ton of insights. Thank you again!

  4. Hello Erledn, great article. I have a question for you. I´m working with some logs rigth now and have problems to display channels when I try to change from DLIS to ASCII, I want to know information about CBL and VDL values, but the file only show me well site data, file header and channels.
    On the DLIS TO ASCII display only allow me to fill checkbox of the parameter selection and the channels section show me nothing is empty.

    1. Thanks! So, the channel selection window is empty? Might this be a DLIS file from another service company than Schlumberger? As I write in the article, different companies might use different “dialects” of DLIS that are not entirely compatible with each other. Schlumberger wrote the DLIS to ASCII program, and if I remember correctly, the program’s documentation says that it may not be fully able to read DLIS files that were not produced by Schlumberger.

      My suggestion to you, at least if you are comfortable-ish with programming (especially in Python), is to use the dlisio Python library to open the file and extract your information. Together with the developers of dlisio, I published a tutorial on that this year, which also includes code examples. You can find an overview of it here: https://erlend-viggen.no/well-log-data-tutorial/

  5. Many logs in the Volve Dataset are also available in the LAS format. I use the WELLY library in python to read and write data in those files.
    I do not want to use the DLISO library because that result in a lot of confusion with the WELLY library. Using two different libraries for well log data manipulation does not look like a good practice. I am also not able to export data using the DLIS to ASCII tool because the software does not recognize the channels in the DLIS file. Do have any suggestions on how do I proceed?

    1. I see, so you want to convert Volve’s DLIS files to LAS so that you can read them using a tool that you are familiar with? The DLIS to ASCII tool is the only one I have ever used for this kind of conversion. However, it was made by Schlumberger, and they only guarantee it to work with their own DLIS files. Converting DLIS files made by other service companies might not be possible with this tool; there was another guy in the comments who seemed to have a similar problem.

      If the DLIS to ASCII tool doesn’t work, I don’t exactly know what to recommend. There might be some commercial tools available that lets you do the same thing, but I’m not familiar with any specific ones. Writing your own DLIS-to-LAS converter based on dlisio would of course also be possible, but would be a quite time-consuming project.

  6. Pingback: Navigating Well log formats in the Volve Oilfield data with the Welly library – DiscoverVolve

    1. I think editing data in a dlis file should be possible with the dlisio library. I don’t know exactly how, though – I’ve only ever been reading data from dlis files with it, never writing or editing.

  7. Maurício Redaelli

    Hey Dr, if you please answer another one:
    Is there a way to export to a dlis file using dlisio? After processing some data, one must export the results to a csv or las file. Would it be possible to just add it to the original dlis?

    1. Hi Maurício, nice to see you again. 🙂 I always thought, based on its name, that dlisio supported both reading and writing files. However, poking around on their Github page, I found a statement from one of the developers that “dlisio can’t write dlis files. At the moment there are no plans to support it in any foreseeable future.” So unfortunately, there seems to be no free library that supports writing DLIS files. Log I/O can do it, according to its documentation, but you have to purchase a licence to use it.

      Then again, do you actually want to use DLIS if you don’t absolutely have to? It’s a very archaic and creaky format, and it’s only still relevant because it’s still a de facto industry standard as the industry hasn’t settled on anything better yet. Unless you need to load your processing results into a well log plotting program, I would just store the results as numpy arrays in a binary file using Python’s pickle library or similar.

  8. Hi, Erlend. Firstly, thanks for the article, your writing is incredibly didactic.

    I am working with DLIS files with multiple logical files as you mentioned in the text. This would not be a problem since the Log Data Composer (SLB Toolbox) can extract each logical file into different DLIS files. But the logical files have multiple channels for the same curve (or property), named, for example, ‘NPHI’, ‘NPHI;1’, ‘NPHI;2′, and the channels with semicolons in their names are not being properly recognized on Petrel’s DLIS loader and on DLIS to ASCII (SLB Toolbox) converter.

    I was looking for a way to modify the curves’ names, that’s how I got here. Since dlisio can’t do it, what would you advise in this case, Erlend? I see other people here had a similar problem, has anyone found a solution yet?

    Best regards.

    1. Hi Adler,

      That’s a good question! I’ve never had a similar problem myself, and it sounds like you have already thought it through thoroughly. I think both of the options you sketch to make it easily readable (i.e., convert to a text-based format or rename the channels) might be possible, but not necessarily easy. I assume your goal is to end up with some kind of file that you can plot and examine in your preferred log analysis software?

      Let’s take the first option first, namely converting the DLIS file to, say, LAS. If you can read all of the data fine using dlisio, all the file contents are already available to you. While there may be no open-source tools that let you write DLIS files, I believe tools such as welly can help you write LAS files, which should be widely readable. You’d then have to write some code to convert the data objects from dlisio to whatever form your LAS-writing tool requires, and then you’d be able to convert your DLIS file to LAS, when the DLIS to ASCII program couldn’t.

      As for the second option, namely renaming the channels with semicolons, this might be possible using Log I/O. This library for Java and .Net lets you not only read DLIS files, but also write them. I haven’t checked thoroughly, but you might be able to rename the channels, or at least, add copies of the channels with different names and remove the original channels. Note that this is a commercial library, so getting a license would cost money! On the other hand, though, the developers were responsive and helpful back when I had bought a short-term license for it.

      Good luck!

      1. Thanks for your reply, Erlend. Your first option seems interesting, but I’m a real newbie Python user. I’m OK using lasio and other libraries for quality control, plotting and rewriting las files, but using dlisio got a little more complicated. I’m stuck on trying to change between the 27 logical files of my data. I could access only the 1st and the last of them using the codes on the dlisio documentation, I also took a look on the codes used by Andy McDonald, but his example has a single logical file, so he doesn’t have to change the reference. Do you know (or have) any example notebook where I can learn how to do it? I would appreciate it very much. 🙂

        1. 27 logical files? Ouch! The entire logical file system seems like a relic, I don’t really understand why companies use it today instead of just breaking their data into multiple physical files…

          At least with dlisio, it’s easy to get the logical files out of the physical file once you know how. The PhysicalFile object is iterable, with each iteration giving you one of the logical files. Because the list constructor builds a list out of every element in a provided iterable object, you can easily get a list of all the logical files like this:

          from dlisio import dlis
          physical_file = dlis.load('path_to_file')
          logical_files = list(physical_file)

          That’s one of many possible ways; another would be a for loop such as for logical_file in physical_file: [...]

          You could also contact Mauricio about the GUI tool he’s building, that sounds like it could be quite interesting. He’s a good guy; our group almost had the chance to hire him as a PhD student two years ago. 😉

  9. Mauricio Redaelli

    Hi Adler.
    I’m working on a gui via Streamlit and it helps a lot to visualize dlis content, in a very organized fashion. If it’s news for you, streamlit allows you to build a web app with ease, while running your python code with some small contraints. I made a dlis visualizer that helps a lot to investigate its contents prior to processing. From that point on, it looks pretty straightforward to save any channel into ascii files. Please understand it’s not a ready to use solution, yet there’s a chance it would turn out usefull. Please let me know if you wanna see the scripts. Just email me at maubrared@gmail.com.
    Erlen, it’s always a bliss to see your blog! I still regret not pursuing that PhD position to the very end, but timing wasn’t in my favor. All the best!

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